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Indian Accounting Standards (India AS)

General Purpose Financial Statements

Accounting Standards are designed to apply to the general purpose financial statements and other financial reporting, which are subject to the attest function of the members of the ICAI. Accounting Standards apply in respect of any enterprise (whether organised in corporate, co-operative1 or other forms) engaged in commercial, industrial or business activities, irrespective of whether it is profit oriented or it is established for charitable or religious purposes. Accounting Standards will not, however, apply to enterprises only carrying on the activities which are not of commercial, industrial or business nature, (e.g., an activity of collecting donations and giving them to flood affected people). Exclusion of an enterprise from the applicability of the Accounting Standards would be permissible only if no part of the activity of such enterprise is commercial, industrial or business in nature. Even if a very small proportion of the activities of an enterprise is considered to be commercial, industrial or business in nature, the Accounting Standards would apply to all its activities including those which are not commercial, industrial or business in nature.

Scope of Accounting Standards

Efforts will be made to issue Accounting Standards which are in conformity with the provisions of the applicable laws, customs, usages and business environment in India. However, if a particular Accounting Standard is found to be not in conformity with law, the provisions of the said law will prevail and the financial statements should be prepared in conformity with such law.  The Accounting Standards by their very nature cannot and do not override the local regulations which govern the preparation and presentation of financial statements in the country. However, the ICAI will determine the extent of disclosure to be made in financial statements and the auditor’s report thereon. Such disclosure may be by way of appropriate notes explaining the treatment of particular items. Such explanatory notes will be only in the nature of clarification and therefore need not be treated as adverse comments on the related financial statements.  The Accounting Standards are intended to apply only to items which are material. Any limitations with regard to the applicability of a specific Accounting Standard will be made clear by the ICAI from time to time. The date from which a particular Standard will come into effect, as well as the class of enterprises to which it will apply, will also be specified by the ICAI. However, no standard will have retroactive application, unless otherwise stated.  The Institute will use its best endeavors to persuade the Government, appropriate authorities, industrial and business community to adopt the Accounting Standards in order to achieve uniformity in preparation and presentation of financial statements.  In formulation of Accounting Standards, the emphasis would be on laying down accounting principles and not detailed rules for application and implementation thereof.

Compliance with the Accounting Standards

The Accounting Standards will be mandatory from the respective date(s) mentioned in the Accounting Standard(s). The mandatory status of an Accounting Standard implies that while discharging their attest functions, it will be the duty of the members of the Institute to examine whether the Accounting Standard is complied with in the presentation of financial statements covered by their audit. In the event of any deviation from the Accounting Standard, it will be their duty to make adequate disclosures in their audit reports so that the users of financial statements may be aware of such deviation.  Ensuring compliance with the Accounting Standards while preparing the financial statements is the responsibility of the management of the enterprise. Statutes governing certain enterprises require of the enterprises that the financial statements should be prepared in compliance with the Accounting Standards, e.g., the Companies Act, 1956 (section 211), and the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (Preparation of Financial Statements and Auditor’s Report of Insurance Companies) Regulations, 2000.

 

The Institute of Chartered Accounts of India issued the following Accounting Standards

AS 1 Disclosure of Accounting Policies

AS 2 Valuation of Inventories

AS 3 Cash Flow Statements

AS 4 Contingencies and Events Occurring after the Balance Sheet Date

AS 5 Net Profit or Loss for the period,Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies

AS 6 Depreciation Accounting

AS 7 Construction Contracts (revised 2002)

AS 9 Revenue Recognition

AS 10 Accounting for Fixed Assets

AS 11 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates (revised 2003)

AS 12 Accounting for Government Grants

AS 13 Accounting for Investments

AS 14 Accounting for Amalgamations

AS 15 Employee Benefits (revised 2005)

AS 16 Borrowing Costs

AS 17 Segment Reporting

AS 18 Related Party Disclosures

AS 19 Leases

AS 20 Earnings Per Share

AS 21 Consolidated Financial Statements

AS 22 Accounting for Taxes on Income

AS 23 Accounting for Investments in Associates in Consolidated Financial Statements

AS 24 Discontinuing Operations

AS 25 Interim Financial Reporting

AS 26 Intangible Assets

AS 27 Financial Reporting of Interests in Joint Ventures

AS 28 Impairment of Assets

AS 29 Provisions, Contingent` Liabilities and Contingent Assets